• Woei Keong Kuan
  • Muhamad Hasbullah Hassan Basri
  • Siti NuraisyahMohd Saufi
  • Siti Nabila Mohd Ibrahim
Keywords: runoff hydrograph, rainfall characteristic, Rational method, runoff coefficient


The changes of land surface imperviousness due to rapid development had contributed to the occurrence of flash floods. The runoff coefficient, C that represents the rainfall-runoff relationship in the catchment is one of important parameter being considered in estimating the peak discharge due to a rainfall event. This study aimed to investigate the influence of rainfall characteristics and land surface imperviousness on rainfall-runoff relationship. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted in a 2m x 1m sand flume to simulate the hydrological cycle in a laboratory scale catchment by varying the rainfall characteristics under different land cover conditions. The spatial distribution of rainfall was found to influence the flood peak and runoff volume in this study. The results revealed that the runoff coefficient was higher under non-uniformly distributed rainfall event. This study indicated that both spatial and temporal variations of rainfall should be considered to improve the accuracy in estimating the flood peak.


Download data is not yet available.


N.W. Chan, “Impacts of Disasters and Disaster Risk Management in Malaysia: The Case of Floods†in Economic and Welfare Impacts of Disasters in East Asia and Policy Responses,ERIA Research Project Report 2011-8, Jakarta, pp. 503-51, 2012.

Urban Storm Water Management Manual For Malaysia - 2nd Edition. Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2012.

S. Grimaldi, and A. Petroselli, “Do we still need the rational formula? An alternative empirical procedure for peak discharge estimation in small and ungauged basinsâ€, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 60(1): p. 67-77, 2015.

R. Merz, G. Blöschl, J. Parajka, “Spatio-temporal variability of event runoff coefficientsâ€. Journal of Hydrology, vol. 331, pp. 591-604, 2006.

C.B. Young, B.M. McEnroe, A.C. Rome, “Empirical Determination of Rational Method Runoff Coefficientsâ€, Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, vol 14, pp.1283-9, 2009.

N. Dhakal, X. Fang, T.G. Cleveland, D.B. Thompson, W.H. Asquith, L.J. Marzen, “Estimation of Volumetric Runoff Coefficients for Texas Watersheds Using Land-Use and Rainfall-Runoff Dataâ€, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, vol. 138, pp. 43-54, 2012.

S. Savary, A.N. Rousseau, R. Quilbé, “Assessing the Effects of Historical Land Cover Changes on Runoff and Low Flows Using Remote Sensing and Hydrological Modelingâ€, Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, vol. 14, pp. 575-87, 2009.

D. Kusumastuti, D. Jokowinarno, S. N. Khotimah and C. Dewi, “The Use of Infiltration Wells to Reduce the Impacts of Land Use Changes on Flood Peaks: An Indonesian Catchment Case Studyâ€,Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology, 25(2), 2017.

A.A. Mamun, A. Hashim, and Z. Amir, “Regional Statistical Models for the Estimation of Flood Peak Values at Ungauged Catchments: Peninsular Malaysiaâ€,Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 17(4): p. 547-553, 2011.

A. Moussouni, L. Mouzai, M. Bouhadef, “Laboratory experiments: Influence of rainfall characteristics on runoff and water erosionâ€, in International Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Waset, vol. 68, pp. 1540-3, 2012.

P. Das, K. Mahmud, S. Karmaker, “Surface-Runoff Characteristics under Simulated Rainfall Conditionsâ€, Progressive Agriculture, vol. 24 (1-2), pp. 219-227, 2014.

Q. Ran, D. Su, P. Li, Z. He, “Experimental study of the impact of rainfall characteristics on runoff generation and soil erosionâ€, Journal of Hydrology, vol. 424-425, pp. 99-111, 2012.

How to Cite
Kuan, W. K., Basri, M. H. H., Saufi, S. N., & Ibrahim, S. N. M. (2019). INFLUENCE OF RAINFALL CHARACTERISTICS AND LAND SURFACE IMPERVIOUSNESS ON RAINFALL-RUNOFF RELATIONSHIP. COMPUSOFT: An International Journal of Advanced Computer Technology, 8(9). Retrieved from